Types of Pig businesses
Pure-bred operations:– This involves the raising of pure bred swine, whose entire lineage traces back to the foundation stock. It is a highly specialised production type that is guided and controlled by the pure breed association. However the cost of operation is high and it involves a high level of management skills.
Feeder/Weaners pig production:- this is aimed at producing large litters of healthy meat type hog. All pigs are sold off after they are weaned. They are suitable where there is adequate facility for farrowing and care of the pigs after they are born. It requires strict sanitation, disease control and a satisfactory market through out the year.
Swine finishing operations:- This involves buying of weaners or growers pigs and raising them to market rate (50 – 90 kg and above) and selling them off.
Farrow to finish production: it is the combination of the 2nd and 3rd operation above. Most Nigerian farmers operate this production system. Here farmers have adequate facility for farrowing and care of the piglets. There is adequate feed and space to carry them to market weight (50 – 90kg and above)
Slaughtering:- this is the slaughtering of mature pigs for sales. Sales are by weighing of slaughtered pigs e.g 1kg of pork is sold for ₦600 in Oko-Oba, Agege, Lagos.
Processing and Marketing:- this is the business of preparing and processing of pork for sale. Also the pig skin and bristle derived from pigs are sold off. Also the trotter can be processed and sold.
Feed:- Majority of pig feed is waste product. Grains, PKG (palm kernel crush), GNC (groundnut cake), Gala waste, sorghum, rice bran (the dust from the rice), noodles waste, blood meal, soya beans, salt (industrial salt), bone meal, cassava peel.
Breeds of Pigs
A breed is a group of animals with certain inheritable characteristics i.e have the same origin and are alike in conformation (that is body shape and size). Some of the breed of pigs are
|British Breed||American breed||Nigerian breed|
|50 – >90kg||50 – >90kg||around 40kg|
|Large white||Land race||West African (dwarf)pig|
Large white:- is a long solid white breed pig. It has erect ears, very popular all over the world, very prolific, litter size is about 12-16>. It is an excellent mother, producing enough milk for its young, used for many cross breeding programmes. Used for all forms of pig production.
Land race:- white in colour, very prolific, fast growing breed and sturdy, it is noted for smoothness and length of body with floppy or dropping ears. Litter size is 10 -16 and above.
Hampshire:- This is a breed of pig of medium size and black body and a white belt at the shoulder.
Duroc:- is a medium size but compact meaty breed, used for cross breeding of local breed to maintain improvement. It has a large body size and reddish skin colour. Litter size is 10 – 14.
West African (dwarf) pig:- it has no definite colour. It has long pointed snout, very small with erect ears. Mature weight is about 40 – 45 kg after many years. Litter size is about 5 – 6.